Why Bike Parking?

Research and supporting information
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Building biking infrastructure results in more people biking.

End of trip facilities, including bike parking, are recognised as being an important component of cycling infrastructure.

The Evidence:

Auckland

The new Auckland Unitary Plan contains rules about cycle parking and end-of-trip facilities.  These rules recognise the role of bike parking in providing for and supporting cycling.  Cycling is a key part of an integrated transport system, a sustainable transport option and a viable alternative to the private car. Cycle parking and end-of-trip facilities are an important complement to investment in an improved on-road and off-road cycle network.

Other Local Authorities

Christchurch and Hamilton City Councils also require for bike parking in their District Plans.

 

NZTA Research:

Bike parking is listed as a ‘strategic intervention for parking management’ in the

The NZ Transport Agency’s BCA Strategic Options toolkit

“End-of-trip facilities (such as secure parking, lockers and showers) and trip facilities (such as shelter, water and toilets) are important infrastructure to support cycling.  Cycling planning needs to consider people’s entire journeys. All people who cycle need to store or park their bicycles securely at either end of a trip.  All journeys require secure parking at each end. Most people will not cycle if they cannot secure their bicycle at their destination or public transport terminal.”

Source: NZTA Complementary Facilities Guide

  • Bike parking is core to two of the 7 key success factors identified for European cities who have high levels of cycling participation.
  • “We can also help to move cycling more into the mainstream, making it more of the ‘norm’. This strategy would focus on quality of design to meet user needs (eg bike parking and facilities), supply of appropriate bicycles, accessories and clothing and methods to get these products to the non-cycling public.
  • Bike Parking is consistent with and supportive of the “Practical Cycling System Model” described in figure 6.2 of “I’ll just take the car”.

Source: Smith, P, M Wilson and T Armstrong (2011) ‘I’ll just take the car’ Improving bicycle transportation to encourage its use on short trips. NZ Transport Agency research report no.426. 132pp

just-take-the-car-practical-cycling-system-model-tiff Source: NZTA Report 426

 

 

In this research, Bicycle parking was used as measure of attractiveness of biking.  Specifically they looked at the following characteristics of bike parking: security, sufficiency, frequency; as well as the impact on the ease of connection with public transport.  They also considered the socio-economic impacts of whether business and workplace offer cyclist facilities.

 

They concluded that cycle infrastructure design can encourage more cycling. Including: frequent and high quality bicycle parking, not just at transport hubs.

 

Source: Bicycle infrastructure: can good design encourage cycling? Journal of Urban, Planning and Transport Research

 

Overseas Support:

Australia

In Austroad’s guidelines for Bicycle Parking facilities, they list the benefits of bike parking including: increased trade/customers, efficient use of space, improved accessibility, increased public transport ridership, improved local community, scooter change management, reduced risk, visible commitment to sustainability, improved goodwill, greater capital growth, improved health, and then they go on to list user benefits as well!

Denmark

Bicycle parking could be a winner.  Good bicycle parking facilities may be what persua- des commuters to travel by bicycle and public trans- port rather than jumping in the car. Bicycle parking can contribute to solving the growing problem of con- gestion. At the same time, public health and the en- vironment are given a boost when we make it more tempting to go by bicycle on a daily basis.  From the Danish Bicycle Federation Bicycle Parking Manual

USA

Other features of bicycle infrastructure also make a difference. Bicycling declines with the number of stops (e.g., due to stop signs or signals) along a route, poor pavement quality,  and inadequate bike parking.

Studies show that bike racks on buses and good bike parking at rail stations increase both bicycling and transit use.

Source: How to Increase Bicycling for Daily Travel – Active Living Research USA

Canada

Economic analysis indicate that over a 20 year service period, the life-cycle costs, which include land, construction, operations and maintenance costs of the various types of bicycle parking facilities are well below the costs associated with vehicle parking.

In the long run, building cities that provide a high degree of functional bike ability, such as Amsterdam where more than a third of shopping trips are made by bicycle along its 400 kilometres of bicycle lanes , would provide a much more cost efficient use of valuable space, compared to cities that are simply focused on accommodating vehicle trips and its corresponding parking needs.

Source: THE ECONOMICS OF BICYCLE PARKING INFRASTRUCTURE IN VANCOUVER

When bicycle parking is insuf cient and/or inconvenient in high cycling demand areas, people will park their bicycles on any available surface and add to existing congestion, accessibility issues and con icts between users of the right-of-way. People

who ride bikes to shop, commute, eat, socialize etc. are important to the vibrancy of Toronto’s economy and require a convenient and adequate supply of bicycle parking when bringing their business to merchants in downtown urban areas.

Business’ Perceived benefits to increased bike parking in the area included:

providing secure, available and convenient parking,

potentially drawing more cyclists to the area,

reduction of unof cial bike parking and resonance with business practices.

Source: Toronto’s Queen Street West Bicycle Parking Study (which is not so much about justifying bike parking as trying to find the best way to meet the clear need for it!)

Europe

In this research, Bicycle parking was used as measure of attractiveness of biking.  Specifically they looked at the following characteristics of bike parking: security, sufficiency, frequency; as well as the impact on the ease of connection with public transport.  They also considered the socio-economic impacts of whether business and workplace offer cyclist facilities.

They concluded that cycle infrastructure design can encourage more cycling. Including: frequent and high quality bicycle parking, not just at transport hubs.

Source: Bicycle infrastructure: can good design encourage cycling? Journal of Urban, Planning and Transport Research

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